Afghanistan: The presidential election was held on September 28. The release of the results has been postponed multiple times; they will be reported in a future issue.
Algeria: The presidential election was scheduled for December 12; results will be reported in a future issue.
Argentina: In the October 27 presidential election, Peronist candidate Alberto Fernández of the new Everyone’s Front coalition (running with former president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner as his vice-presidential candidate) won with 48 percent of the vote. In accordance with the constitution, he was able to avoid a runoff by winning a plurality exceeding 45 percent. He defeated incumbent Mauricio Macri of the Together for Change coalition. Elections were held concurrently for Argentina’s bicameral legislature. In elections for 130 seats in the 257-seat Chamber of Deputies, Everyone’s Front won 64 seats and Together for Change won 56. In elections for 24 seats in the 72-seat Senate, Everyone’s Front won 13 and Together for Change won 8.
Belarus: In November 17 elections for the 110-seat House of Representatives, all seats were won by parties or independent candidates closely associated with President Alyaksandr Lukashenka. Many opposition candidates were barred from participating, and observers from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) criticized the elections, stating that they “demonstrated an overall lack of respect for democratic commitments.” [End Page 210]
Bolivia: According to official results of the October 20 presidential election, President Evo Morales of the Movement to Socialism (MAS) won a fourth term with 47 percent of the vote, narrowly avoiding a runoff by finishing 10 percent ahead of his nearest challenger, former president Carlos Mesa of the Civic Community coalition, who won 37 percent. Early official results and independent tallies showed that Morales had not secured a sufficient margin of victory to avoid a runoff, and the release of the final tally prompted widespread protests and accusations of fraud. Observers from the Organization of American States criticized the “hard-to-explain” change in the results and called for a runoff. On November 10, Morales stepped down in response to continuing protests, and Senate president Jeanine Añes Chávez became interim president of the country. New elections have yet to be scheduled.
Botswana: In October 23 elections for the 57 elected seats in the National Assembly, the long-ruling Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) led by President Mokgweetsi Masisi won 38 seats, the Umbrella for Democratic Change (UDC) won 15, the Botswana Patriotic Front won 3, and the Alliance for Progressives won 1. UDC leader Duma Boko challenged the results, while African Union observers praised the election as peaceful and transparent.
Dominica: In December 6 elections for the 21 elected members of Parliament, the Dominica Labour Party of Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit won 18 seats, and the United Workers’ Party won 3. Skerrit was reelected to a fifth term as prime minister. The election followed weeks of unrest and legal challenges from the opposition.
Guinea-Bissau: In the first round of the presidential election on November 24, former prime minister Domingos Simões Pereira of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde won 40 percent; former prime minister Umaro Sissoco Embaló of Madem G-15 won 28 percent; Nuno Gomes Nabiam of the Assembly of People United won 13 percent; and incumbent José Mário Vaz, running as an independent, won 12 percent. Pereira and Embaló were scheduled to compete in a second round on December 29, and the results will be reported in a future issue.
Kiribati: Parliamentary elections were scheduled to be held by December 31; results will be reported in a future issue.
Kosovo: In October 6 elections for the 120-seat Assembly of Kosovo, the Movement for Self-Determination led by Albin Kurti won 29 seats; the Democratic League of Kosovo won 28; the Democratic Party of Kosovo won 24; the 100% Kosovo coalition won 13; the Serb List won [End Page 211] 10; and smaller parties won the remaining 16 seats. EU observers called the elections transparent, but noted that in ethnic Serb areas campaigning was “marred by intimidation and lack of competition.”
Mauritius: In November 7 elections for the 62 elected seats in the National Assembly, the Mauritian Socialist Movement, led by Prime Minister Pravind Kumar Jugnauth, won a majority with 38 seats. The Mauritius Labour Party won 14, the Mauritian Militant Movement won 8, and the Rodriguan People’s Organization won 2.
Mozambique: In the October 15 presidential election, incumbent Filipe Nyusi of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) won 75 percent, defeating Ossufo Momade of the Mozambican National Resistance (Renamo), who won 20 percent. Renamo challenged the results, and EU observers criticized the election for being marked by limitations on freedom of assembly and domestic election observation, as well as by violence and intimidation. In the lead-up to the election, police were implicated in the shooting of a local election observer. Concurrent elections were held for the 250-seat Assembly of the Republic; results will be reported in a future issue.
Namibia: In the November 27 presidential election, President Hage Geingob of the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) was reelected with 56 percent. Independent Panduleni Itula won 29 percent, and McHenry Venaani of the opposition Popular Democratic Movement (PDM) won 5 percent. In concurrent elections for the 96-seat National Assembly, SWAPO won 63 seats, narrowly losing the two-thirds majority it had held since 1994. PDM won 16 seats, the Landless People’s movement won 4, and smaller parties won the remaining seats.
Poland: In October 13 elections for the 460-seat Sejm, the Law and Justice (PiS) party led by Jarosław Kaczyński won a majority with 235 seats. The Civic Coalition (KO), dominated by Civic Platform, won 134; the new Left Coalition won 49; the Polish Coalition won 30; the nationalist Confederation party won 11; and the regional German Minority Electoral Committee received 1. In concurrent elections for the 100-seat Senate, PiS won 48, KO won 43, the Polish Coalition won 3, the Left Coalition won 2, and the remaining seats were won by independents.
Romania: In the November 24 presidential runoff, incumbent Klaus Iohannis of the National Liberal Party won 66 percent, defeating former prime minister Viorica Dăncilă of the Social Democratic Party, who had been unseated by a vote of no-confidence in October. In the [End Page 212] first round on November 10, Iohannis won 38 percent, Dăncilă won 22, and Dan Barna of Save Romania Union-Plus Alliance won 15.
Sri Lanka: In the November 16 presidential election Gotabaya Rajapaksa of the Sri Lanka People’s Front won 52 percent of the vote, defeating Sajith Premadasa of the New Democratic Front, who won 42 percent. Rajapaksa is the brother of former strongman president Mahinda Rajapaksa, who was defeated in his bid for a third term in 2015 by outgoing president Maithripala Sirisena.
Tunisia: In the October 13 presidential runoff, Kais Saied, who ran as an independent, won 73 percent, defeating Nabil Karoui of Heart of Tunisia, who won 27 percent. In the first round on September 15, Saїed won 18 percent, Karoui won 16 percent, and Abdelfattah Mourou of Ennahda won 13 percent. In October 6 elections for the 217-seat Assembly, Ennahda won 52 seats, Heart of Tunisia won 38, Democratic Current won 22, the new Dignity Coalition won 21, the Free Destourian Party won 17, the People’s Movement won 15, and smaller parties and independents won the remaining 52 seats.
Uruguay: In the November 24 presidential runoff, the National Party’s (PN) Luis Lacalle Pou, son of former president Luis Alberto Lacalle, won 51 percent, defeating Daniel Martínez of the Broad Front (FA), who won 49 percent. In the first round on October 27, Martínez won 41 percent, Lacalle won 30 percent, Ernesto Talvi of the Colorado Party (PC) won 13 percent, and Guido Manini Ríos of the Open Cabildo party (CA) won 12 percent. In concurrent elections for the 99-seat Chamber of Representatives, FA won 42, PN won 30, PC won 13, CA won 11, and smaller parties won the remaining three seats.
Uzbekistan: In the December 22 parliamentary elections, followed by a second round in January 10, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party was first with 53 of the 150 seats in the Legislative Chamber, followed by the National Revival Democratic Party with 36 seats. The extreme left Justice Social Democratic Party was the one to gain more seats (4 more than last elections) for a total of 24.
(January 2020–December 2020)
Azerbaijan: Elections were scheduled to take place in November 2020, but were brought forward after Parliament was dissolved in December 2019. Ruling party declarad victory in Parliamentary elections on February 9, 2020. Elections were mared by irregularities. President Ilham Aliyev's ruling New Azerbaijan Party (YAP) has increased its share by four seats in the single-chamber legislature and only one opposition candidate has won a seat.
Belize: legislative, 1 November 2020
Burkina Faso: parliamentary/presidential, by 30 November 2020
Burundi: parliamentary, 20 July 2020 [End Page 213]
Cameroon: parliamentary, 9 February 2020
Central African Republic: parliamentary, 27 December 2020
Côte d’Ivoire: presidential/legislative, 31 October 2020
Croatia: parliamentary, 23 December 2020; presidential, 20 January 2020
Dominican Republic: legislative, by 31 May 2020
Ethiopia: parliamentary, by 31 May 2020
Georgia: parliamentary, by 31 October 2020
Guinea: legislative, 16 February 2020
Guyana: parliamentary, 2 March 2020
Iran: parliamentary, 28 February 2020
Jordan: parliamentary, by 30 September 2020
Kazakhstan: parliamentary, by 30 April 2020
Lithuania: parliamentary, 11 October 2020
Mongolia: parliamentary, by 30 June 2020
North Macedonia: parliamentary, 12 April 2020
Peru: legislative, 26 January 2020
Saint Kitts and Nevis: parliamentary, 28 February 2020
Serbia: parliamentary, by 30 April 2020
Slovakia: parliamentary, by 31 March 2020
Suriname: parliamentary, by 31 May 2020
Taiwan: parliamentary/presidential, 11 January 2020
Vanuatu: parliamentary, 19 March 2020